CONTENTS 1874-79

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VOLUME ONE: BUILDING THE CHICAGO THAT BURNED (1803-1874)

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VOLUME TWO: DEPRESSION AND TRANSITION (1874-1879)

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. 1874: THE BEGINNING – FIREPROOFING THE IRON FRAME

1.2. THE CHICAGO SCHOOL: AS A MAINSTREAM MOVEMENT: 1877-1892

1.3. GÖTTERDDÄMERUNG: THE SKYSCRAPERS OF LOUIS SULLIVAN (1892-1904)

1.4. THE THREE VARIABLES OF THE CHICAGO SCHOOL: CONCEPT, ORNAMENT, AND ARCHITECTURAL EXPRESSION

1.5. AMERICAN MAINSTREAM ARCHITECTURE IN THE EARLY 1880S

1.6. THE ARTISTIC DIVIDE: THE CLASSICISTS VS. THE MODERNS

1.7. AN AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE IN THE LAST QUARTER OF THE 19TH CENTURY

1.8. THE ANTITHESIS OF THE CHICAGO SCHOOL: ACADEMIC CLASSICISM

1.9. MISINTERPRETATIONS OF THE CHICAGO SCHOOL

1.10. WAS THERE EVER A “CHICAGO SCHOOL”?

1.11. SECTIONAL DIFFERENCES IN PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE: THE WESTERN ASSOCIATION OF ARCHITECTS

1.12. AN ARCHITECTURAL PLEBISCITE: ROOT’S PLANS FOR THE 1893 WORLD’S FAIR

CHAPTER 2. JENNEY AND WIGHT BRING EUROPEAN MODERN THEORY TO CHICAGO

2.1. THE SEARCH FOR AN “AMERICAN ART”

2.2. ANDREW JACKSON DOWNING AND HORATIO GREENOUGH

2.3. RICHARD MORRIS HUNT RETURNS FROM THE ÉCOLE DES BEAUX-ARTS

2.4. AMERICANS DISCOVER THE BRITISH DESIGN REFORM MOVEMENT

2.5. THE FORMATION OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTURE

2.6. THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TRUTH IN ART

2.7. PETER BONNETT WIGHT ADOPTS BRITISH DESIGN REFORM THEORY

2.8. VIOLLET-LE-DUC’S IDEAS CROSS THE ATLANTIC

2.9. WILLIAM LE BARON JENNEY’S PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN FRANCE

2.10. JENNEY’S BOHEMIAN YEARS IN PARIS: COURBET AND WHISTLER

2.11. JENNEY’S PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF ARCHITECTURE (1869)

2.12. WIGHT’S 1869 A.I.A. PAPER ON FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION

CHAPTER 3. HOW DID THE 1871 FIRE CHANGE CHICAGO?

3.1. THE BEHAVIOR OF “FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION” DURING THE 1871 FIRE

3.2. THE POST-FIRE POLITICAL REALITIES DETERMINE THE RESPONSE TO THE FIRE

3.3. THE POST-FIRE BUILDING CODE

3.4. POST-FIRE SUMMARY

3.5. THE FIRE DID NOT RESULT IN CHANGES TO CHICAGO’S ARCHITECTURE

3.6. HOW THE FIRE CHANGED CHICAGO’S URBAN STRUCTURE

3.7. PETER B. WIGHT MOVES TO CHICAGO

3.8. WIGHT INTERVIEWS JOHN WELLBORN ROOT

3.9. CORNELIUS VANDERBILT MOVES INTO RAILROADS

3.10. WIGHT BRINGS ROOT TO CHICAGO

3.11. ROOT TEAMS WITH DANIEL H. BURNHAM

CHAPTER 4. THE 1873 PANIC AND THE 1874 FIRE

4.1. JAY COOKE AND THE NORTHERN PACIFIC

4.2. JAY COOKE AND THE CRASH OF 1873

4.3. VANDERBILT GAINS CONTROL OF THE ROUTES TO CHICAGO

4.4. THE 1873 PANIC GROWS INTO THE 1874 DEPRESSION

4.5. THE CHICAGO FIRE OF JULY 14, 1874, AND THE CANCELLATION OF ALL FIRE INSURANCE

4.6. PETER B. WIGHT SOLVES THE FIRE PROBLEM OF IRON FRAMING

4.7. SANFORD LORING AND POROUS TERRA COTTA

4.8.  SUMMARY: SETTING THE HISTORICAL RECORD STRAIGHT

CHAPTER 5. PHILADELPHIA: RED BRICK, THE 1876 WORLD’S FAIR AND FRANK FURNESS

5.1. A REVIEW OF PHILADELPHIA’S ANTEBELLUM BRICK BOXES

5.2. POST-WAR PHILADELPHIA

5.3. PHILADELPHIA BEGINS PREPARATIONS FOR THE FAIR

5.4. A NEW CITY HALL: THE TALLEST BUILDING IN THE WORLD

5.5. THE 1000’ HIGH IRON TOWER

5.6. THE STATUE OF LIBERTY: v.1.0.

5.7.  CHARLES STILLÉ’S CALL FOR “AMERICAN” CULTURE: A PHILADELPHIA SCHOOL?

5.8. THE MARK TWAIN OF AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE: FRANK FURNESS

5.9. UNDERSTANDING THE INFLUENCES ON FRANK FURNESS

5.10. HENRI LABROUSTE AND THE NÉO-GREC

5.11. NÉO-GREC DOES NOT LOOK LIKE GREEK

5.12. OTHER EUROPEAN INFLUENCES ON FURNESS

5.13. THE PENNSYLVANIA ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS

5.14. FURNESS: THE MASTER MASON-THE CENTENNIAL BANK

5.15. SUMMARY: HOW PHILADELPHIA INFLUENCED THE CHICAGO SCHOOL

CHAPTER 6. CINCINNATI RENAISSANCE: THE PARIS OF AMERICA

6.1. CINCINNATI’S POST-WAR REBOUND

6.2. BUILDING THE SAENGERFEST-HALLE

6.3. MARIA LONGWORTH NICHOLS PLANS THE FIRST MAY FESTIVAL

6.4. THEODORE THOMAS AND HIS ORCHESTRA

6.5. THE CINCINNATI MAY FESTIVAL

6.6. FOUNTAIN SQUARE AND “THE GENIUS OF WATER”

6.7. CHICAGO RESPONDS: THE INTERSTATE INDUSTRIAL EXPOSITION BUILDING 

6.8. THE CINCINNATI MUSIC HALL

6. 9. THE PARISIAN ARCADE: THE EMERY ARCADE

6.10. THE BON MARCHÉ IN PARIS

6.11. CINCINNATI’S JOHN SHILLITO: “THE PIONEER MERCHANT”

6.12. KARL FRIEDRICH SCHINKEL AND THE BAUAKADEMIE

6.13. JAMES MCLAUGHLIN’S 1877 SHILLITO’S DEPARTMENT STORE

6.14. THE USE OF IRON FRAMING IN SHILLITO’S

6.15. SHILLITO’S STRUCTURE: PART 2

6.16. THE FIRST MAY FESTIVAL IN THE NEW MUSIC HALL: MAY 14, 1878

VOLUME THREE: THE CHICAGO SCHOOL: PART ONE (1879-1886)

CHAPTER 1. 1879: THE ECONOMY REBOUNDS IN CHICAGO

1.1. SUMMARIZING VOLUME TWO

1.2. WHERE CHICAGO’S LEADING ARCHITECTS WERE IN 1879

1.3. CHICAGO TRIES TO WOO THEODORE THOMAS AWAY FROM CINCINNATI

1.4. THE GREAT 1877 RAILROAD STRIKE

1.5. WORKINGMEN’S PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES: ALBERT PARSONS

1.6. FIELD & LEITER’S STORE BURNS AGAIN AND THE 1878 LOCAL ELECTIONS

1.7. THE CENTRAL MUSIC HALL

1.8. ADLER HIRES LOUIS SULLIVAN, THE INTERIOR ORNAMENTALIST

1.9. JENNEY’S RIFF ON SHILLITO’S: THE FIRST LEITER BUILDING

1.10. FRAMED VS. “CAGE” (BOX) CONSTRUCTION

1.11. JENNEY’S STRUCTURE OF THE LEITER BUILDING

1.12. THE FIRST NEW OFFICE BUILDING: THE GRANNIS BLOCK

1.13. DEARBORN VS. LA SALLE: ACT TWO

1.14. WILLIAM H. VANDERBILT’S MONOPOLY AND THE DEARBORN STREET STATION

1.15. THE BROOKS BROTHERS AND THE DEARBORN STREET STATION

1.16. BRYAN LATHROP BRINGS OWEN ALDIS TO CHICAGO

1.17. THE BROOKES HIRE ALDIS AS THEIR AGENT

1.18. BURNHAM AND ROOT: IN THE BEGINNING

CHAPTER 2. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY SKYSCRAPER: COMMODITY

2.1. THE SKYSCRAPER PRINCIPLE: THE EQUITABLE LIFE ASSURANCE BUILDING

2.2. WHAT IS A “SKYSCRAPER”?

2.3. CHICAGO’S FIRST SKYSCRAPER: THE KENDALL BUILDING

2.4. THE SKYSCRAPER GROWS UP IN NEW YORK: THE WESTERN UNION BUILDING 

2.5. THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE BUILDING: PRE-DEPRESSION BUT POST-URBAN HOLOCAUST

2.6. THE SKYSCRAPER’S VITRUVIAN OBJECTIVES: COMMODITY, FIRMNESS, AND DELIGHT

2.7. COMMODITY: THE ATRIUM

2.8. THE DOUBLED-LOADED CORRIDOR WITHOUT AN ATRIUM

2.9. THE SINGLE-LOADED CORRIDOR WITH AN ATRIUM

2.10. THE DOUBLE-LOADED CORRIDOR WITH AN EXTERIOR LIGHTCOURT

2.11. THE LIGHTCOURT EXPOSED ON THE EXTERIOR

2.12. THE ATRIUM: THE EQUITABLE, WESTERN UNION, AND NEW YORK TRIBUNE BUILDINGS

2.13. COMMODITY: THE ROLE OF BAY WINDOWS AND AWNINGS

CHAPTER 3. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY SKYSCRAPER: FIRMNESS

PART A. THE INTERIOR STRUCTURE: TIMBER OR IRON?  (1874-1881)

3.1. GEORGE POST REDESIGNS THE EQUITABLE’S INTERIOR STRUCTURE

3.2. POST AND THE WESTERN UNION BUILDING

3.3. THE BOSTON FIRE OF NOVEMBER 8, 1872 AND EQUITABLE’S SECOND NEW BUILDING

3.4. HUNT’S NEW YORK TRIBUNE BUILDING

3.5. PETER WIGHT’S FIRST FIREPROOFED COLUMNS: THE CHICAGO CLUB

3.6. WIGHT USES THE NEW AMERICAN ARCHITECT TO PROMOTE HIS PRODUCTS

3.7. THE FIRST TERRA COTTA FIREPROOFED BUILDING: MILWAUKEE’S MITCHELL BUILDING

3.8. ALEXANDER MITCHELL: MILWAUKEE’S WILLIAM OGDEN

3.9. THE FIRST TERRA COTTA FIREPROOFED BUILDING: MILWAUKEE’S MITCHELL BUILDING 

3.10. DRY-ROT HITS CHICAGO’S POST-FIRE CONSTRUCTION

3.11. FIELD & LEITER IS AGAIN BURNED TO THE GROUND: NOVEMBER 14, 1877

3.12. WIGHT FIRE PROTECTS WOOD FLOORS

3.13. THE MILWAUKEE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE BUILDING

3.14. WIGHT AND LORING EXPAND INTO THE EAST

3.15. THE STATE OF FIRECLAY TILE FIREPROOFING ON THE EAST COAST

3.16. WIGHT AND LORING CONTINUE TO MARKET NATIONWIDE

3.17. EDWARD ATKINSON AND THE MASSACHUSETTS MANUFACTURERS’ MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY

3.18. ATKINSON VS. WIGHT: HEAVY TIMBER VS. FIREPROOFED IRON CONSTRUCTION

3.19. SHOWDOWN! THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF ARCHITECTS FIRE TESTS THE TWO SYSTEMS

PART B. THE EXTERIOR STRUCTURE: THE BRICK BEARING WALL

3.20. THE RETURN TO MASONRY BEARING WALLS: “BOXED” CONSTRUCTION

3.21. BRICK VS. STONE?

3.22. THE WEIGHT OF THE WALL: THE FINAL FRONTIER

3.23. THE LOSS OF RENTALABLE FLOOR AREA

3.24. REDUCED DAYLIGHTING

3.25. THE FOUNDATION PROBLEM

3.26. THE EVOLUTION OF EXTERIOR SKELETON FRAMING

3.27. THE NEED FOR LATERAL BRACING

3.28. LORING EXPANDS CHICAGO TERRA COTTA TO BOSTON: BOSTON TERRA COTTA

3.29. GEORGE POST ONCE AGAIN PIONEER’S IN NEW TECHNOLOGY: ORNAMENTAL TERRA COTTA

CHAPTER 4. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY SKYSCRAPER: DELIGHT

4.1. HISTORIC PRECEDENTS OF TALL STRUCTURES

4.2. AMERICAN MAINSTREAM ARCHITECTURE IN 1880

4.3. THE SKYSCRAPER’S ORGANIZATION

4.4. THE ELEVATIONS: OPENINGS IN THE WALL 

4.5. THE VARIABLES: HOW TO ARTICULATE THE SURFACE OF A WALL

4.6. THE ART OF DESIGN: FORMAL VS. RATIONAL

4.7. THE “FORMAL” DESIGN OF AN ELEVATION

4.8. THE “RATIONAL” DESIGN OF AN ELEVATION

4.9. FOUR “RATIONAL” CONCEPTS FOR AN ELEVATION

4.10. A MODERN AMERICAN ORNAMENT VIA “THE GRAMMAR OF ORNAMENT”

CHAPTER 5. CONTEMPORARY EASTERN PRECEDENTS: NEW YORK AND RICHARDSON

5.1. THE HEIGHT OF THE SECOND EMPIRE: THE EQUITABLE AND THE WESTERN UNION BUILDINGS

5.2. HUNT AND THE LAYERED-ARCADE ELEVATION

5.3. DETLEF LIENAU AND THE “FIRST” LAYERED-ARCADE ELEVATION

5.4. HUNT AND THE NEW YORK TRIBUNE BUILDING

5.5. JENNEY PARALLELS NEW YORK’S EARLY USE OF THE ARCADE PROGRESSION

5.6. THE FINAL CONSTRUCTED DESIGN OF THE TRIBUNE BUILDING

5.7. GEORGE POST ADOPTS THE MULTISTORIED ARCADE

5.8. H.H. RICHARDSON AND THE LAYERED ARCADE

5.9. THE FRENCH INTEREST IN THE ROMANESQUE: SYRIAN BYZANTINE AND SICILIAN NORMANESQUE

5.10. RICHARDSON RETURNS FROM FRANCE

5.11. RICHARDSON RELOCATES TO BOSTON

5.12. AFTER THE SECOND EMPIRE: THE RETURN OF THE PALAZZO BOX

5.13. THE INFLUENCE OF NEW YORK ON THE SHILLITO’S STORE

5.14. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SHILLITO’S STORE ON NEW YORK

5.15. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SHILLITO’S STORE ON GEORGE POST

5.16. THE INFLUENCE OF THE SHILLITO’S STORE ON GEORGE POST

5.17. POST’S FINAL DESIGN OF THE MILLS BUILDING

5.18. THE MILLS BUILDING: THE FIRST MODERN OFFICE BUILDING

5.19. THE NEW YORK PRODUCE EXCHANGE: POST’S MASTERPIECE